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What makes a great work of literature. Or put it another way why is the Iliad a great work. I have just spent the last eight months reading the Iliad. I started off reading each of the first twelve books twice then when I had completed those books I read them all again for the third time. I repeated the process for the next twelve books and then when I had read all twenty four books three times I read the whole lot again for the fourth time. I read at least a hundred lines very day in Greek. This was not the first time I had read the Iliad but it was the first time for many years.
So my purpose in this post is to try to show what the power of the Iliad is and why almost three thousand years after it was composed it it is still regarded as a major work.
The first thing but not the most important is the poetry or the actual sound of the words. Now most of this must be lost even when reading in Greek. We do not know exactly how Ancient Greek was pronounced. When reading it in my head or aloud I ignore the accents; I stress the long syllables; I don’t pronounce the thetas or phis or chis correctly. My vowels must be all over the place but even with all this an incredible amount of the poetry comes through. I notice the poetry more when I am reading slowly and with difficulty. It just suddenly strikes me how Homer has achieved an effect by meter or the sounds of the consonants or vowels or by various devices. When I am reading more quickly the poetry just works on me without me noticing how he does it.
The poetry is there to enhance and embellish the story, to make it vivid. It makes the actions that are described seem important. There is another way that Homer makes human actions seem important that is by involving the gods. There is a bit of supension of disbelief for us and we have to understand that the gods can both represent our basic emotions and life in a profound way and at the same time be objects of comical ridicule. I am sure that the audience for Homer would have been able to have held these opposing ideas in their heads without any problem although for some such as Plato it did cause problems.
So now let’s get to the story. To summarise, the Greeks are trying to capture the city of Troy. Agamemnon, the leader in chief of the Greeks quarrels with Achilles, the mightiest warrior in the Greek army. Agamemnon has to give up the girl who been alloted to him as part of his share of booty so after a quarrel with Achilles takes a girl who has been allotted to him. He can do this because he is commander in chief. Achilles in his turn refuses to fight and refuses to let the Myrmidions who serve under him to fight. He also asks his mother Thetis, a goddess of the sea, to intervene with Zeus to turn the tide of victory to the Trojans so that Agamemnon will pay for the slight. Eventually the Trojans get the upper hand and are in danger of overwhelming the Greek camp and setting their ships on fire. Hector a son of the Trojan king and their chief warrior is unstoppable and many Greeks are slain. Eventually Achilles partly relents and lets his comrade and dearest friend Patroclus lead the Myrmidions out but tells him only to drive the Trojans away from the camp and when he has done this to return. Patroclus disobeys and continues to drive the Trojans to Troy until he is killed by Hector.
At this point Achilles is roused to a great fury against the Trojans who have killed his best friend. He goes on a killing spree killing many Trojans without mercy until he eventually kills Hector. This is not just normal war; for example he takes some Trojans alive so he can sacrifice them at the funeral of Pafroclus which he holds after killing Hector. When he has killed Hector, he tries to desecrate his body by dragging it behind his chariot and exposing it for the dogs and carrion birds to eat. The normal and decent behaviour would be to return the body to the family for a ransom so that it can have a decent burial. In the last book under the instructions of the gods he returns Hector’s body for a ransom.
Well that’s the basis of the story although there are many diversions along the way. But what makes it great? There is no analytical answer. You can’t say it’s great for this or that reason. The only way to understand it is to examine your emotions once you have read it. The best way to describe my emotions is to say I was drained. Throughout the book Achilles was gripped by anger; at first a slow mouldering anger against Agamemnon. This anger caused the death of many Greeks but he never took any responsibility for this. As far as he was concerned the fault lay entirely with Agamemnon but his revenge hurt not only Agamemnon but his other fellow Greeks. And then when his anger mounts against the Trojans he loses all decency. His chief opponent, Hector, is a thoroughly decent man. He is fighting to protect his city and the women and children. He loves and shows affection for his wife and child. He is human; he makes a tactical error when he does not draw back the Trojans to the city when Achilles is roused but he takes full responsibility for the error with fatal consequences for himself. When he meets Achilles for the final battle, at first he runs away but then turns round showing a more human courage which can waver but then collects itself.
Meanwhile Achilles is a more one dimensional character governed by the single emotion of anger. But it is his story that the book is about and it is his emotions we are caught up in; not Agamanenon who,overreached himself when he took Achilles’ girl, nor Hector although we may be more sympathetic to him. And there is something else about Achilles; we know that his death is imminent. His death is not part of the story of the Iliad but he knows and we know that it will very shortly occur. At the end of the story Achilles has been through this great emotion and come out the other side. And what is he at the end. I would say that we are intensely aware that his time is over. Instead of being a superhero he is now diminished. His anger is abated enough to allow Hector’s body to be ransomed. The only thing left for him is death.
Now our lives do not reflect Achilles’ but there are parallels and this is what makes the Iliad great. We live our lives, all of us knowing that we are mortal and even if we are not short lived we will die in the end. Meanwhile we are all trying to do something with our lives whether big or small; furthering our career, raising a family or just battling with our own demons. And at the end there may be a time when we have done all this and we are just waiting for the end; a time when we are diminished, no longer active participants in the world. So the travails of our life in a way reflect those of Achilles’ and at the end we are spent but nevertheless, as Achilles is elevated by the poetry and force of the story, so our lives feel elevated by reading the Iliad.
if you are tired and it’s dark without any lights and you are walking down a road, the objects in the road seem to take on a strange shape. Your mind see trees as giants and you see strange things looming out of the dark. So it must have seen to the warriors in the Iliad fighting on the plain of Troy. Tney did not fight in the dark but mist and the dust of war must have made it seem like night and the warriors would have been tired. So looking at the oak tree near Troy it would have been easy to imagine a god leaning against it.
Then the sons of the Achaians would have taken high-gated Troy, had not Phoebus Apollo roused up glorious Agenor, the strong and blameless son of Antenor. He put courage in his heart. He came and stood beside him to keep the strong hands of death from him, leaning on the oak tree and he was covered by a thick mist.
ἔνθά κεν ὑψίπυλον Τροίην ἕλον υἷες Ἀχαιῶν,
εἰ μὴ Ἀπόλλων Φοῖβος Ἀγήνορα δῖον ἀνῆκε
φῶτ᾽ Ἀντήνορος υἱὸν ἀμύμονά τε κρατερόν τε.
ἐν μέν οἱ κραδίῃ θάρσος βάλε, πὰρ δέ οἱ αὐτὸς
ἔστη, ὅπως θανάτοιο βαρείας χεῖρας ἀλάλκοι
φηγῷ κεκλιμένος: κεκάλυπτο δ᾽ ἄρ᾽ ἠέρι πολλῇ.
Peleus was the father of Achilles who married a goddess of the sea Thetis. There was possibly an old story that at his wedding Peleus received three magical gifts – a suit of armour which no weapon could pierce, a spear that always came back to you when you had thrown it, and divine horses that were immortal. These three gifts he gave to Achilles when he went to Troy.
This story Homer adapted somewhat for the Iliad. He doesn’t explicitly say that the armour was impenetrable but when Patroclus went out to battle borrowing Achilles armour, before Hector killed him, Apollo stripped him of the armour leaving him naked. Hector then put on the armour and before Achilles could kill him he had to find a part of the body that was exposed. The divine horses were useful but sometimes when a chariot went out, besides the two main horses there was a trace horse, so that even if the two horses pulling the chariot could not be harmed, the trace horse could so that the chariot would not be invincible – else how could you have dramatic tension if something was invincible. The theory is that Homer baulked at the idea of a spear that always returned to its thrower. This was a bit to magical for his tastes so that he used the device of a god retuning the spear to it owner
τὸ δ’ ὑπέρπτατο χάλκεον ἔγχος,
ἐν γαίῃ δ’ ἐπάγη· ἀνὰ δ’ ἥρπασε Παλλὰς Ἀθήνη,
ἂψ δ’ Ἀχιλῆϊ δίδου, λάθε δ’ Ἕκτορα ποιμένα λαῶν.
The bronze spear (thrown by Achilles) flew over him and stuck in the ground but Pallas Athene snatched it up and gave it back to Achilles without Hector realising.
When Homer describes something. It is often difficult to picture it in your mind. One example is this when he gives a simile containing saw toothed dogs.
As when two saw toothed dogs skilled in hunting keep harrying a young deer or hare through a wooded place, and he runs in front of them squealing.
ὡς δ᾽ ὅτε καρχαρόδοντε δύω κύνε εἰδότε θήρης
ἢ κεμάδ᾽ ἠὲ λαγωὸν ἐπείγετον ἐμμενὲς αἰεὶ
χῶρον ἀν᾽ ὑλήενθ᾽, ὃ δέ τε προθέῃσι μεμηκώς,
So what does a saw toothed dog look like. Well maybe something like this
Metope depicting Artemis and Actaeon devoured by dogs, 470-460 BC, relief from the temple in Selinunte, Sicily, Italy. Ancient Greek civilization, Magna Graecia, 5th Century BC. Palermo, Museo Archeologico Regionale (Archaeological Musem).
This is one of Homer’s simile that is easy to relate to. We can think of places we have been and travel to them in our mind. That’s how quickly Hera could travel.
So he (Zeus) spoke and white armed Hera did not fail to obey. She went from the mountains of Ida to tall Olympus. Just like when the mind of a man who has travelled widely quickly moves as he thinks in his imagination “I wish I was there – or there” and there is a lot that he wishes, as quickly as that did Hera fly in her eagerness
ὣς ἔφατ᾽, οὐδ᾽ ἀπίθησε θεὰ λευκώλενος Ἥρη,
βῆ δ᾽ ἐξ Ἰδαίων ὀρέων ἐς μακρὸν Ὄλυμπον.
ὡς δ᾽ ὅτ᾽ ἂν ἀΐξῃ νόος ἀνέρος, ὅς τ᾽ ἐπὶ πολλὴν
γαῖαν ἐληλουθὼς φρεσὶ πευκαλίμῃσι νοήσῃ
ἔνθ᾽ εἴην ἢ ἔνθα, μενοινήῃσί τε πολλά,
ὣς κραιπνῶς μεμαυῖα διέπτατο πότνια Ἥρη:
After it seems years of being invisible behind large boards, the main Bodleian library in Oxford has suddenly reappeared with a brand new foyer cafe etc and an exhibition called “Marks of genius” with some amazing exhibits – a first folio of Shakespeare, a section of the Magna Carta andmany more. Among the exhibits is a papyrus containing fragments of Sappho as in this rather bad photo below.
I don’t know what poems on the papyrus but this is one of Sappho’s poems.
Ο]ἰ μὲν ἰππήων στρότον οἰ δὲ πέσδων
οἰ δὲ νάων φαῖσ᾽ ἐπὶ γᾶν μέλαιναν
ἔ]μμεναι κάλλιστον ἔγω δὲ κῆν᾽
ὄττω τὶσ ἔπαται.
Some say an army of horsemen, some an army of foot soldiers is the most beautiful thing onthe earth. I say is is that thing whatever someone loves.
I am including this passage from the chariot race in book 23 of the Iliad because in the last three words he imitates the sound of galloping horses. (Kephalas katathente petesthen)
After the mares, the Trojan stallions of Diomedes came out not far behind, in fact very close. For the two horses seemed to be about to mount the chariot in front. Eumelus’ back and broad shoulders were warmed by their breath. They held their heads over him as they flew along.
τὰς δὲ μετ᾽ ἐξέφερον Διομήδεος ἄρσενες ἵπποι
Τρώϊοι, οὐδέ τι πολλὸν ἄνευθ᾽ ἔσαν, ἀλλὰ μάλ᾽ ἐγγύς:
αἰεὶ γὰρ δίφρου ἐπιβησομένοισιν ἐΐκτην,
380πνοιῇ δ᾽ Εὐμήλοιο μετάφρενον εὐρέε τ᾽ ὤμω
θέρμετ᾽: ἐπ᾽ αὐτῷ γὰρ κεφαλὰς καταθέντε πετέσθην.
There are now a large number of Internet resources for those trying to read Ancient Greek. Number one has to be Perseus which I discussed in another post . Another facility that I have found really useful is Scribd. This is a site that contains thousands of books and documents that you can download freely. Of course the books have to be out of copyright bit it includes a large number of the Loeb texts. I use the Scribd application on my IPad and I found the texts perfectly readable.
To my surprise I also found The commentary on the Iliad edited by Kirk. As this is only twenty to twenty five years old I was surprised to find it there. To buy the complete set would cost new $300, well beyond my book buying budget. I have been reading the iliad painstakingly for several months now using a version of Walter Leaf’s commentary first published in 1898. This is in itself excellent but archaeology and scholarship have thrown up so much since then. Even Kirks commentary must now be a bit dated but a doubt whether there has been as detailed a one since then. Each set of four books has a different commentator so there are differences in style and emphasis. I particularly like Richard Janko’s commentary on books 17 to 20. If I have one complaint it is that these commentaries are too detailed and to follow them completely when reading the Iliad would so interrupt your flow when reading that you would lose all enjoyment.
With any luck I will stumble across other treasures in Scribd.
At any rate with all these books on line, it is easy to build up a virtual collection of all the best books whether you are educated not.
καὶ μὴν ἐναντίον ἐστὶν οὗ ἐθέλεις ὃ νῦν ποιεῖς. οἴει μὲν γὰρ ἐνπαιδείᾳ καὶ αὐτὸς εἶναί τις δόξειν σπουδῇ συνωνούμενος τὰκάλλιστα τῶν βιβλίων:
You are doing the opposite of what you want to do. Do you think that you are going get a reputation for being educated by eagerly collecting the best books.
Lucian to the uneducated Man who buys many books.
We are told that the Homer used similes so that the listener could relate the experiences in his epic to everyday experiencesof their own. If this is so, you wouldn’t have been able to throw a stone in the time of Homer without hitting a lion. The lion is the most common feature of a simile and you have have thought that the Homeric Greece was chockablock with these animals.
Well maybe not. I have had some difficulty in finding out when lions went extinct in Greece and Turkey. The best I have found is this from Richard Janko in his commentary in the Iliad.
Book 15 586—8 Thi s simile resembles the scene on Akhilleus’ shield where lions
raid a herd of cattle defended by drovers and dogs (18.579fr.); this reflects
the realities of life in Ionia. As if to authenticate the Nemean lion, lion-bones
are known from Mycenaean Tiryns and Keos; lions roamed Macedonia
throughout antiquity and Turkey until the sixteenth century A.D. (Hdt .
7.125?; B. Hel ly, REA 70 (1968) 275-82; P. War reo, J HS 109 (1979) 1230.;
J. Boessneck and A. von den Driesch, Archäologischer Anzeiger 1981, 257?).
Lions were probably extinct round Athens and Attica long before this. I am sure that Plato somewhere mentions that one advantage that Athens has is that it is free from dangerous wild animals.
This is from Iliad 18.579. Not actually a simile but a description of a scene on Achilles’ shield.
Two fierce lions in the front of the cattle were holding down a bellowing bull and he was being dragged off with loud moans. The dogs and young men were going after him. But the lions had broken the hide of the great bull and were feasting on its innards and dark blood. The herdsmen pursued in vain urging on their dogs which were turning away from the lions and not biting but standing close were howling and keeping out of their way.
σμερδαλέω δὲ λέοντε δύ’ ἐν πρώτῃσι βόεσσι
ταῦρον ἐρύγμηλον ἐχέτην: ὃ δὲ μακρὰ μεμυκὼς 580
ἕλκετο: τὸν δὲ κύνες μετεκίαθον ἠδ’ αἰζηοί.
τὼ μὲν ἀναρρήξαντε βοὸς μεγάλοιο βοείην
ἔγκατα καὶ μέλαν αἷμα λαφύσσετον: οἳ δὲ νομῆες
αὔτως ἐνδίεσαν ταχέας κύνας ὀτρύνοντες.
οἳ δ’ ἤτοι δακέειν μὲν ἀπετρωπῶντο λεόντων, 585
ἱστάμενοι δὲ μάλ’ ἐγγὺς ὑλάκτεον ἔκ τ’ ἀλέοντο.